By Daisy Ohikhuare, optometrist and student of the Master in Clinical Optometry and Vision Therapy


The universal health coverage plans to ensure no individual is left behind in an attempt fulfil the third Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. In the course of achieving this goal, some individuals are left out because of the unaffordable healthcare in most developing nations like Nigeria; it is little or no coverage for low/no income earners and prisoners amongst whom we have children. These groups of people are regarded as vulnerable: they are persons without sufficient resources or security. From the World Health Organization, children are amongst the vulnerable, and a doubly vulnerable group are juvenile delinquents. This work compared the already collated data of incarcerated (n=76) and non-incarcerated (n=76) children from age 9-18 years in Lagos. The mean was 15 years for the males and 14 years for the females, while the control mean was 12 years for males and 13 years for females. A Visual Acuity of 6/6 or less was registered in one or both eyes by approximately 70% of the incarcerated individuals. About 72.4 %, had ocular morbidities; with the refractive error – the main cause of morbidity 38.2%, followed by 34.8 % pathologies – consisting primarily of allergic conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis, lens opacity, retinal detachment, glaucoma suspects being 29%, 3.3%, 0.66%,0.66%,1.3% respectively. No significant difference in the prevalence of refractive errors was observed in both groups, but a significant difference in pathology was observed between them. In non-incarcerated, there was a greater incidence of refractive error – 44.7 % of children than incarcerated – 34 %. There’s a significant difference in gender distribution, type of refractive status, and ocular surface anomalies between both groups.

Keywords: refractive error; incarcerated; non incarcerated children; ocular morbidities, conjunctivitis, pathologies.

Download the full research study here: Daisy Ohikhuare (2020). Retrospective Comparative Study of Ocular Morbidities amongst Children in a Juvenile Detention Centre in Lagos State, Nigeria


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