SAERA: Advanced Education and e-Learning

By Trevor Tenday, student of the Master in Applied Neuroscience

Abstract

Presentation, pathophysiology and treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

This investigation explores the literature on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and presents the scientific findings and understanding of ADHD. This disorder has emerged to be one of the most controversial illness. It is, therefore, very beneficial to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of the complication better and it is also important to investigate the development of the disorder. The developmental course of the ailment widely varies across peoples’ lifespan. This complication develops from childhood and continues into the period of adolescence and early adulthood until late stages of life. The symptoms of the mental illness are far from being uniform, meaning that the presentation of the disorder varies from one individual to another. The symptoms of the disorder tend to appear differently between gender due to the complexities of the condition.

There are many suspected causes the illness such as physiologic, environmental, genetic, biochemical, behavioral and sensorimotor factors. Other causes include exposure to tobacco, alcohol, lead and cocaine. There are also complications which are associated with ADHD such as iron deficiency, obstructive sleep apnea, head trauma, etc. The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is primarily based on clinical criteria that consists of thorough medical assessment i.e. developmental and psychological evaluations. Normally, ADHD usually exists together with other disorders and this makes the diagnosis very complicated indeed and not to mention the bias which is inherent in some systems against a ADHD diagnosis. Nevertheless, it is very important to accept the limits of diagnostic techniques. ADHD has usually a serious impact on a person’s life that is long-lasting.

This disorder can disrupt a person’s life if left untreated. The methods used to manage ADHD are very diverse and subject to debate. These treatment methods are mainly pharmacological in nature, yet there are firmly known to cure ADHD and there exist many treatment methods which effectively assist in the management of ADHD. The methods of treatment include behavioral and pharmacological therapy. For many people suffering from the disorder, medication is an important component of the treatment regime. The management of ADHD by using behavior therapy is labour intensive, expensive and difficult than the treatment using medications. Ideally, a combination of behavioral and medicinaltreatments are better preferred than behavioral treatment methods. Not only does the management and treatment of ADHD the disorder deals with medication alone but includes other broader methods such as a person’s accommodations at work or school, behavioral therapy and life skills. A doctor works closely with the patient in order to determine the most effective medication regime and therapeutic dosage. Learning skills can help in relieving the symptoms of ADHD. The learning of life skills might appear to be seemingly simple. However, these skills can greatly affect a person’s quality of life. Therapy or counseling can help to address relationship and self-esteem issues, or depression that can result from attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder. Therefore, this thesis investigation attempts to deliver a thorough and better knowledge of the ADHD complexities by investigating how clinical studies of ADHD do translate to an efficient management of a patient with ADHD.

The thesis provides an overview of the past and present investigations on topics about symptoms, etiologies and treatment of ADHD. ADHD is one of the most commonly occurring neurobehavioral disorder of children and young adults and approximately occurs in 8 percent of these people. It is very useful, therefore. to fully understand the complete series of consequences of ADHD. The thesis main goal, also, is to thoroughly examine the existing knowledge pertaining ADHD and provide the specialists with the information on the ADHD diagnosis, assessment and treatment.

Download the full Research Work: Trevor Tenday (2019). Literature Review, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. SAERA

 

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